A measure of the amount of heat that flows in or out of a substance under constant conditions when there is a one degree difference between the air within and outside a building. U-values are used in determining the performance of a glazing system or window assembly.
The energy range just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum. Although ultraviolet radiation constitutes only about 5 percent of the total energy emitted from the sun, it is the major energy source for the stratosphere and mesosphere, playing a dominant role in both energy balance and chemical composition.
Most ultraviolet radiation is blocked by Earth's atmosphere, but some solar ultraviolet penetrates and aids in plant photosynthesis and helps produce vitamin D in humans. Too much ultraviolet radiation can burn the skin, cause skin cancer and cataracts, and damage vegetation.
The process of recycling in such a way that new products are of higher economic value.
An organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure). Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to state-wide government monopolies. The term utilities can also refer to the set of services provided by these organizations consumed by the public: electricity, natural gas, water and sewage. Telephone services may also be included.
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